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Climate change
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Developing countries, including China and India, weren't mandated to reduce emissions, given that they'd contributed a relatively small share of the current century-plus build-up of CO2. Under Kyoto, industrialised nations pledged to cut their yearly emissions of carbon, as measured in six greenhouse gases, by varying amounts, averaging 5. However, the protocol didn't become international law until more than halfway through the — period. By that point, global emissions had risen substantially. Signatories must meet their targets primarily through national measures.

However, the Kyoto Protocol offers an additional means of meeting targets through three market-based Kyoto mechanisms :. These measures are designed to stimulate green investment and help signatories meet their emission targets in a cost-effective manner. The progress towards the target is calculated in comparison with the level of emissions in a historical year, called the Kyoto base year , which for most EU countries is The collective EU commitment has a Kyoto base year , while other EU countries have different base years, namely Bulgaria , Hungary average of , Poland , Romania and Slovenia Under the Protocol, only the Annex I Parties have committed themselves to national or joint reduction targets formally called "quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives" QELRO — Article 4.

The emissions limitations of Annex I Parties varies between different Parties. Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping. For most state parties, is the base year for the national GHG inventory and the calculation of the assigned amount. Annex I Parties can use a range of sophisticated "flexibility" mechanisms see below to meet their targets.

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Annex I Parties can achieve their targets by allocating reduced annual allowances to major operators within their borders, or by allowing these operators to exceed their allocations by offsetting any excess through a mechanism that is agreed by all the parties to the UNFCCC, such as by buying emission allowances from other operators which have excess emissions credits. The Protocol defines three " flexibility mechanisms " that can be used by Annex I Parties in meeting their emission limitation commitments. The economic basis for providing this flexibility is that the marginal cost of reducing or abating emissions differs among countries.

At the time of the original Kyoto targets, studies suggested that the flexibility mechanisms could reduce the overall aggregate cost of meeting the targets. The CDM and JI are called "project-based mechanisms," in that they generate emission reductions from projects. The difference between IET and the project-based mechanisms is that IET is based on the setting of a quantitative restriction of emissions, while the CDM and JI are based on the idea of "production" of emission reductions.

The reductions are called " credits " because they are emission reductions credited against a hypothetical baseline of emissions. Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. These countries nominate a person called a "designated national authority" to create and manage its greenhouse gas inventory. Virtually all of the non-Annex I countries have also established a designated national authority to manage their Kyoto obligations, specifically the "CDM process".

A number of emissions trading schemes ETS have been, or are planned to be, implemented.

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One of the environmental problems with IET is the large surplus of allowances that are available. OECD countries with a deficit could meet their Kyoto commitments by buying allowances from transition countries with a surplus. Unless other commitments were made to reduce the total surplus in allowances, such trade would not actually result in emissions being reduced [47] : 25 see also the section below on the Green Investment Scheme. However, using the GIS is not required under the Kyoto Protocol, and there is no official definition of the term.

The proceeds from the AAU sales should be "greened", i. Latvia was one of the front-runners of GISs. Between , which was the first year Clean Development Mechanism CDM projects could be registered, and , the end of the first Kyoto commitment period, the CDM is expected to produce some 1. The formal crediting period for Joint Implementation JI was aligned with the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and did not start until January Carbon Trust, , p.

KyotoProtocol - Toward Climate Stability

Russia accounts for about two-thirds of these savings, with the remainder divided up roughly equally between the Ukraine and the EU's New Member States. As noted earlier on , the first-round Kyoto emissions limitation commitments are not sufficient to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of GHGs. Stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations will require further emissions reductions after the end of the first-round Kyoto commitment period in Analysts have developed scenarios of future changes in GHG emissions that lead to a stabilization in the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs.

To achieve stabilization, global GHG emissions must peak, then decline. The first period Kyoto emissions limitations can be viewed as a first-step towards achieving atmospheric stabilization of GHGs. Scenarios assessed by Gupta et al. Gupta et al. Projections indicated that by , non-Annex I emissions in several regions Latin America , the Middle East , East Asia , and centrally planned Asia would need to be substantially reduced below "business-as-usual". Projections indicated that by , emissions in all non-Annex I regions would need to be substantially reduced below "business-as-usual".

National emission targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol exclude international aviation and shipping. Changes in sinks and land use can have an effect on the climate, [69] and indeed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Land use, land-use change, and forestry estimates that since a third of global warming has been caused by land use change. Forest management , cropland management, grazing land management, and revegetation are all eligible LULUCF activities under the Protocol.

Article 4. During negotiations, the G represented developing countries.

Kyoto Protocol

China was not a member of the group but an associate. The Berlin mandate was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol in that developing countries were not subject to emission reduction commitments in the first Kyoto commitment period. The G77 and China were in favour of strong uniform emission cuts across the developed world.

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The most vulnerable nations — the Alliance of Small Island States AOSIS — pushed for deep uniform cuts by developed nations, with the goal of having emissions reduced to the greatest possible extent. The final targets negotiated in the Protocol are the result of last minute political compromises. The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects.

One such project is The Adaptation Fund " [84] ", that has been established by the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol left several issues open to be decided later by the sixth Conference of Parties COP6 of the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in the Hague in late , but it was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union who favoured a tougher implementation and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible.

In , a continuation of the previous meeting COP6bis was held in Bonn where the required decisions were adopted.

Kyoto Protocol

After some concessions, the supporters of the protocol led by the European Union managed to get the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing more use of carbon dioxide sinks. COP7 was held from 29 October through 9 November in Marrakech to establish the final details of the protocol. The protocol defines a mechanism of "compliance" as a "monitoring compliance with the commitments and penalties for non-compliance. In addition, that country will be suspended from making transfers under an emissions trading program. Lucia and Switzerland.

At the end of the signature period, 82 countries and the European Community had signed. Ratification which is required to become a party to the Protocol started on 17 September with ratification of Fiji. Countries that did not sign acceded to the convention, which has the same legal effect. As of May , countries and one regional economic organization the EC have ratified the agreement, representing over Andorra non-party to Kyoto Holy See non-party to Kyoto.

To become binding in the US, however, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate , which had already passed the non-binding Byrd-Hagel Resolution , expressing disapproval of any international agreement that did not require developing countries to make emission reductions and "would seriously harm the economy of the United States". The resolution passed 95—0.


When George W. Bush was elected US president in , he was asked by US Senator Chuck Hagel what his administration's position was on climate change. This policy reversal received a massive wave of criticism that was quickly picked up by the international media. Environmental groups blasted the White House, while Europeans and Japanese alike expressed deep concern and regret. In response to this criticism, Bush stated: "I was responding to reality, and reality is the nation has got a real problem when it comes to energy.

As of , the US is the only signatory that has not ratified the Protocol. As such, for the treaty to go into legal effect without US ratification, it would require a coalition including the EU, Russia, Japan, and small parties. In , Canada, Japan and Russia stated that they would not take on further Kyoto targets. The Harper government prioritized oil sands development in Alberta, and deprioritized improving the environment.

Environment minister Peter Kent cited Canada's liability to "enormous financial penalties" under the treaty unless it withdrew.